The Probe

Urban Water Management
Sustainable management of urban water has been necessitated to ensure urban sustainability. Growing population and aging infrastructure are creating challenges for efficient water management in cities (NRDC, 2016). Groundwater decline is major problem across the cities relying on groundwater as a source of drinking water. Higher rate of abstraction of
Solar Windows
Solar technology has been used to produce heat and electricity. Solar PV panels are installed on the roof of a building to produce household energy. Solar technology can be applied as a solar window for energy production and conservation. Heat and energy exchange occurs through windows of a house in different ways.
Health Effects of Cadmium Presence of cadmium in drinking water is hazardous to human health. Renal, cardiovascular, respiratory and skeletal effects have been found to be induced by cadmium exposure. Cadmium can induce renal tubular dysfunction leading to renal lesion and irreversible impairment of reabsorption capacity of renal tubules. Combine concentration of Renewable Energy Support Schemes
Promotion of solar PV as a renewable energy and implementing energy policies has been a priority for more than 80 countries of the world. Renewable energy contributed 22.6% of gross electricity generation in Germany in 2012 and it is targeting to achieve 80% share of renewable energy in the total electricity
Carbon Pricing
Carbon pricing is an effective policy instrument to reduce greenhouse gas emission. Carbon pricing is based on polluter pay principle that a carbon emitter pays price to cut the emissions (Bowen, 2011; World Bank, 2015). Polluters have decision making power to cut their emissions and avoid carbon price for their production.
Food Security
FAO (2016) defined food security as "it exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life ". Undernourishment and food